Risk of HIV Infection

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Vaginal Intercourse 1/1000
Anal Intercourse 1/250 - 1/500
Needle stick Injury 1/300
Sharing of Needle 1/100 - 1/150

HIV can be transmitted by: 

  • Vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom.
  • Sharing drug injecting equipment. 
  • During pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding if the mother is HIV positive. 

HIV is rarely transmitted by:

Vaginal or anal sex with a correctly used condom (using only water-based lube).
Oral sex without a condom (ejaculation increases the risk, as may gum disease).
Needle stick injuries.

HIV has not been reported as being transmitted by: 

  • Kissing or cuddling. 
  • Shaking hands/social contacts. 
  • Sharing knives and forks, cups or glasses. 
  • Sharing toilet seats or mosquito bites.

Testing for HIV Infection

There are a number of methods to test for HIV using blood, saliva or urine samples. However, the most accurate and the most common way is by testing a person’s blood.  There are three biological markers that can be tested to diagnose an HIV infection:

  1. Testing for HIV antibodies (the body’s immune response to an HIV infection); 
  2. Testing for the p24 Antigen (a protein that is produced during the early phase of an HIV infection); 
  3. Testing for the HIV virus itself (that causes AIDS)
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